Showing posts with label scientific. Show all posts
Showing posts with label scientific. Show all posts


Definition of Socially and Economically Disadvantaged Individuals

The U.S. government defines “socially and economically disadvantaged” individuals under the Small Business Act (15 USC 637) as:
(5) Socially disadvantaged individuals are those who have been subjected to racial or ethnic prejudice or cultural bias because of their identity as a member of a group without regard to their individual qualities.
(6)(A) Economically disadvantaged individuals are those socially disadvantaged individuals whose ability to compete in the free enterprise system has been impaired due to diminished capital and credit opportunities as compared to others in the same business area who are not socially disadvantaged. In determining the degree of diminished credit and capital opportunities the Administration shall consider, but not be limited to, the assets and net worth of such socially disadvantaged individual.
This coverage extends only to socially and economically disadvantaged U.S. citizens, or those who have been lawfully admitted permanent U.S. residency. Individuals not mentioned in the act may be considered on a case-by-case basis.
Individuals specifically mentioned include:
Black Americans
Hispanic Americans regardless of race, culture, or origin
Asian-Pacific Americans and Subcontinent Asian Americans
Native Americans including Native Hawaiians, Eskimos, Aleuts, and American Indians
Women are presumed to be included under the act because of social, and therefore, economic, disadvantages women encounter.

Design Your Educational Philosophy

While studying to be teachers, we are often asked to write out our personal educational philosophies. This is not just an empty exercise, a paper only meant to be filed in the back of a drawer.
To the contrary, your educational philosophy statement should be a document that serves to guide and inspire you throughout your teaching career. It captures the positive aspirations of your career and should act as a centerpiece around which all of your decisions rotate.
When writing your educational philosophy statement, consider the following:
* What do you see is the grander purpose of education in a society and community?
* What, specifically, is the role of the teacher in the classroom?
* How do you believe students learn best?
* In general, what are you goals for your students?
* What qualities do you believe an effective teacher should have?
* Do you believe that all students can learn?
* What do teachers owe their students?
Your educational philosophy can guide your discussions in job interviews, be placed in a teaching portfolio, and even be communicated to students and their parents.
Here is a sample educational philosophy statement:
I believe that a teacher is morally obligated to enter the classroom with only the highest of expectations for each and every one of her students. Thus, the teacher maximizes the positive benefits that naturally come along with any self-fulfilling prophecy; with dedication, perseverance, and hard work, her students will rise to the occasion.
I aim to bring an open mind, a positive attitude, and high expectations to the classroom each day. I believe that I owe it to my students, as well as the community, to bring consistency, diligence, and warmth to my job in the hope that I can ultimately inspire and encourage such traits in the children as well.

Tips for Teaching the Scientific Method

Teaching the Scientific Method is a fundamental way for students to practice thinking critically. By performing science experiments and analyzing the resultant data, you are helping to build the next generation of creative thinkers.
Through the six steps of the Scientific Method, students learn how to define a problem, observe situations, take notes, synthesize the results, and come to a logical conclusion based on objective results.
Use your Science textbook, Google, or your own observations of nature and your school surroundings to come up with ideas for science experiments that will interest your students at an age-appropriate level.
Spend some time doing Direct Instruction to explain and model the six different parts of The Scientific Method. It may take some practice and exposure for your students to get used to the vocabulary of Science and how each of the parts of the Method work in practice.
Remember that writing about Science also meets Language Arts standards. Additionally, the Scientific Process will make your students more robust and analytical thinkers in all subjects.
Follow on to the second page of this article for a Scientific Method worksheet that you can print out and use right away.

What to Look for in a Good Gifted Program

Many parents of gifted children wonder if their local school will be able to provide an appropriate education for their children. Should they stick with the local school? Look for a private school? Quite often a parent will assume that a private school is better than a public school. However, that is not necessarily true. Gifted children need a special environment, as does any special needs child, and it’s important for parents to understand what to look for in a school, whether it’s private or public.
Whether your child is already in school or about to start, you will want to evaluate what it has to offer. In order to do that, you need criteria. The elements described here are the elements of a good gifted program. Use them as criteria for evaluating any school you are considering for your child.
* Philosophy and Goals
What is the philosophy and what are the goals of the program? Are the goals similar or different for different ages? If they are different, what are the differences and why are they different? Gifted children are gifted for life. They start out gifted and end up gifted. As a result, they have similar academic needs throughout their school years. Any differences in goals should be based on age-appropriate differences in instruction, but those differences should be based on what is appropriate for gifted children.
* Acceleration and Enrichment
Acceleration refers to the speeding up of instruction. Gifted children are fast learners and require little repetition of information. Enrichment refers to the increased depth of study of a particular topic. It extends the regular curriculum. Both are needed in some form.
* Multiple Options
Is the program a “one size fits all” program or are there various options for the different needs of the different types of gifted children? A profoundly gifted child has significantly different educational needs than does a mildly gifted child, for example. In addition, a child may be exceptionally gifted in math, but not in language arts. Multiple options are essential.
* Student Learning Expectations
What are the students expected to learn by the end of the program session? Learning outcomes must be clear. The students may have fun, but they must also learn something new. Any child could participate in fun activities, but a gifted program should be one that is designed specifically for gifted children.
* Challenging Curriculum
Gifted children need a stimulating curriculum. Without it, they can “tune out,” losing interest in school. A curriculum for gifted children should require them to stretch their minds.
* Flexibility
Flexibility is needed in order to respond to the needs of individual gifted children. Rigid adherence to the system often prevents some gifted children from appropriate challenges. For example, a gifted 3rd grader may have mastered 6th grade level math. That child does not need to complete third grade math assignments. A school needs to be flexible enough to consider options for that child’s math instruction. Another possibility is a gifted child musician. A junior high student with exceptional talent playing the violin could be allowed time off from school to take advantage of opportunities to study with exceptional violinists or take part in special musical programs.
* Sound Identification Process
Multiple assessment procedures should be used to determine which children would benefit from placement in a gifted program. Every effort should be made to include children who are frequently overlooked. These children include LD gifted, underachievers, and children from under-represented groups, like economically deprived and minority children. Too often schools rely on one test, usually a group test, or simply teacher recommendations for identification.
* Staff Development Plan
Teachers who have been trained to work with gifted children are much more effective than those who have not. Do the teachers who work in the gifted program or teach the gifted children have gifted endorsements? Does the school have regular in-service sessions about gifted children?
* Guidance Component
Gifted children often feel isolated or “different.” They sometimes don’t feel like they fit in socially with the other children. They also can be very sensitive and have a harder time than other children dealing with the day-to-day stress of school or growing up. The guidance can be individual or group guidance.
* Honoring Academic Talent
Schools must honor all talent areas in the same way athletic talent is honored. For example, pep rallies can be held for academics and artistic talent as well as for sports. Groups of students often participate in the Science Olympiad or local and state band competitions, and pep rallies could be held for these. Names of achievers can be listed or announced in the same way sports heroes are listed and announced.
The more of these criteria a school meets, the better it will be for your child.

Ability Grouping

Definition: Ability grouping is the placement of children in one classroom into groups based on their ability. The classroom may contain children with a wide range of ability. Children can move in and out of groups as needed. For example, a child may be in the high ability group in reading, but a middle level in math. If the child improves in math, he could be moved up to the high ability in math. In the same way, if the child begins to have problems in reading, he could be moved to a lower group. This flexibility of grouping allows the needs of children to be better met. Ability grouping is not the same as tracking, heterogeneous grouping, or cluster grouping.

Cluster Grouping

Definition: Cluster grouping is one method schools use to meet the academic needs of gifted children. Gifted children in one grade level are grouped together in one classroom. For example, if a school has three different third grade classrooms and five gifted children in third grade, all five of these children would be placed in one of the three third grade classrooms rather than split up and placed in the different classrooms.
The children need not be globally gifted, but may be gifted in one academic area, such as reading or math. Consequently, the children who are mathmatically gifted might be placed in one classroom while the verbally gifted are in another classroom. However, placing them in different classrooms is a problem if any of the children are globally gifted gifted since they can’t be in both classrooms at the same time.
Movement in and out of these groups in relatively fluid. A child may be in the advanced group in math, but not in reading, and could be in the advanced group in math one year, but not the next year.
Cluster grouping is an inexpensive way for schools to meet the academic needs of gifted children. However, teachers must be able to differentiate instruction for the different levels of ability in the classroom.

Definitions of Terms Related to Gifted Education

When we want to get the best educational experiences for our gifted children, we really need to be familiar with the various educational options available. The options listed here are the most common ones.
Options Based on Grouping Children
These options are available with limited resources and little, if any, extra money. Ideally, the teacher in any option will have some training or at least some knowledge and understanding of gifted children.
* Ability Grouping. As the name indicates, children are placed into groups based on their ability.
* Cluster Grouping. All the gifted children in the same grade level are placed in the same classroom.
* Homogeneous Grouping. This is similar to ability grouping. All the high ability children in one classroom are grouped together.
* Heterogeneous Grouping. This is the most common method of grouping, but the least helpful to gifted children. Students of varying ability are placed in the same group.
Options Designed Specifically for Gifted Children
These options sometimes require additional funding and resources, but less than people imagine. Both options require the identification of gifted children and separating them either full time or part time from other children.
* Pull-Out Program. Gifted children are taken out of their regular classroom for a short amount of time every week for special services.
* Self-Contained Classroom. Gifted children get their own classroom. They spend all day, every day with other gifted kids.
Other Options in Gifted Education
These options are not necessarily strictly for gifted children, but they can certainly benefit gifted kids.
* AP Courses. These are advanced placement courses and are available only for high school students, when they are available at all.
* Differentiation. This is an instructional method that takes into account the strengths and weaknesses of all the children in a classroom. It can be used with all age groups.
* Grade Skipping. Children who have already mastered the material in one grade level and are capable of handling the material at the next grade level are moved to the next grade level.
* Cooperative LearningThis is another instructional methodology, but it is based on a system of heterogeneous grouping.

Trail Mix Math Lesson Plan for Elementary Students (Adaptable to K-6)

Submitted by Angie Honda
Required Materials – A bag of trail mix snacks is required. The trail mix needs to have a variety of ingredients, such as peanuts, pretzels, chocolate chips, dried fruit, etc.
Give each student a small portion of trail mix in little baggies or on a paper towel. Guide the students in classifying the trail mix in the following mathematical ways:
* Each like ingredient should be grouped together and counted. The students can make note of the data on a form that you supply.
* Next, have the students graph the individual trail mix components by amounts, in a pie chart or or bar graph.
* Take the math lesson a step further and have your students express the ingredient amounts as fractions of the whole.
Additionally, nutrition and food pyramid lessons can be derived from the lesson, then the materials can be eaten!

jdm | Java Data Mining

Java Data Mining
Java Data Mining (JDM) is a standard Java API for developing data mining applications and tools. JDM defines an object model and Java API for data mining objects and processes. JDM enables applications to integrate data mining technology for developing predictive analytics applications and tools. The JDM 1.0 standard was developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 73. As of 2006, the JDM 2.0 specification is being developed under JSR 247.
Various data mining functions and techniques like statistical classification and association, regression analysis, data clustering, and attribute importance are covered by the 1.0 release of this standard.

Patent Trolls

Patent trolls are individuals or investment funds that purchase patents as a long-term investment, seeking the income stream from collecting royalties. The term has a perjorative connotation, casting these patent holders in a different light from companies that actually manufacture products or deliver services based on the patents. Patent trolls are frequently engaged in litigation against patent infringers who attempt to use the patented knowledge without paying for it (and who show their resentment at being forced to pay by characterizing their pursuers as “trolls”).
Certain hedge funds and private equity firms are devoting growing amounts of their capital to buying patents as an investment. Some are looking to exploit pricing inefficiencies and resell at a profit.
Specialized patent brokerage firms are springing up. What they do includes gathering information on a patent’s validity and known cases of infringement. Some of them conduct patent auctions, and others are creating patent exchanges.
Sellers of patents include universities and individual inventors who either cannot exploit the commercial possibilities of their patents, or who lack the legal resources to force infringers to pay royalties. Then there are companies, many of them small, that are in desperate need of cash, or which are using patent sales to manage earnings. There also are larger companies that wish to divest themselves of patents that are not applicable to their core businesses.
People with engineering and other technical or scientific degrees should be of great value in this area, having the expertise to review patents with an informed and critical eye.
According to an article in the September 12, 2009 issue of The Economist, about $4 billion worth of patents were traded in 2008, and the figure is growing by around 20-30% annually.
Examples: Patent trolls tend to be long-term investors who seek ongoing royalty income from portfolios of patents, analogous to investors who collect interest income from bond portfolios.


What is Management?

Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources and natural resources. Since organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as human action, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This view opens the opportunity to 'manage' oneself, a pre-requisite to attempting to manage others.


Executive MBA (EMBA)

Executive MBA (EMBA) programs developed to meet the educational needs of managers and executives, allowing students to earn an MBA or another business-related graduate degree in two years or less while working full-time. Participants come from every type and size of organization – profit, nonprofit, government – representing a variety of industries. EMBA students typically have a higher level of work experience, often 10 years or more, compared to other MBA students. In response to the increasing number of EMBA programs offered, The Executive MBA Council was formed in 1981 to advance executive education.